HMRC has reported that up to GBP 3.5 billion in Coronavirus Job Retention Scheme (CJRS) rewards could have been received unlawfully or as a consequence of mistake and stated that 27,000 “high risk” reports have been investigated.

In his yearly survey to the Public Accounts Committee on 7 September 2020, HMRC Chief Executive Jim Harra reported that HMRC was focused on the premise that 5-10 percent of CJRS cases had been wrongly paid out. This covers all statements made by employees that have not complied with the formal terms of the policy, ranging from sincere negligence to intentional theft.

The CJRS allows businesses to apply for a subsidy to offset a large portion of the salaries of their employees that stay on the register but do not operate (commonly known as “furloughing”). The latest report indicates that roughly 35.4 billion have been recorded under the policy since its launch in March 2020 to fund almost 1.2 million workers and 9.6 million furlough staff. Furloughed workers are not required to work with their boss, but can, if they choose, volunteer, practice, or participate in new work for another company.

Considering the size of the plan and the urgency in which the first transactions required to be done, the CJRS has recently been regarded as a minefield for mistakes and an enticing target for violence. But how does the HMRC define a “mistake” of “theft” in their investigative methodology?


HMRC has been enabled to distinguish possibly false claims through more than 8,000 whistleblower leaks, which ensures that HMRC will deploy quicker than normal. Consequently, the HMRC has started to review about 27,000 “high-risk” situations, which are expected to be instances where the HMRC believes a claim is false, such as:

  • Workers were required to operate while being on furlough;
  • allegations have been raised for workers who have not been informed of being furloughed and even for non-employees;
  • In some form, statements have been falsely manipulated.

Any early investigations are created by responding to businesses to remind them that the HMRC has questions about awards provided to them through the CJRS and to encourage them to communicate with the HMRC to amend their allegations. It is known that HMRC is approaching up to 3,000 companies per week in this manner. For certain contractors who do not respond to clarification demands, the HMRC may launch one-to-one inquiries.

If there are reasons for alleged theft, the HMRC will typically take a swifter response. HMRC confirmed its first “absolute fraud” conviction in July 2020 when an offender was arrested for alleged CJRS theft and other forgery and money laundering violations along with eight additional offenders as part of a related inquiry including the relocation of more than 100 HMRC agents to various locations. HMRC specifically intended that the prosecution would allow a declaration of intent, indicating at the moment that they “would not hesitate to respond on allegations of violence.” More significantly, on 10 September 2020 the director of the business and the accountant were held and charged with bribery through fraudulent misrepresentation, financial fraud, and misappropriation of offices in regards to fake demands for CJRS. It is speculated that the size of the scam is £70,000.


As the burden on the UK Government is rising to narrow the tax gap, it is evident that even firms behaving in good conscience will be swept up in the HMRC compliance action. While Mr. Harra indicated that HMRC’s new policy is not to punish those managers, on 8 September the Prime Minister’s representative explained that HMRC also wants businesses to recognize failures and attempt to remedy their statements where legitimate errors have happened.

To that effect, the Finance Act 2020 adopted additional provisions to guarantee that CJRS grants (and other assistance payments from COVID-19) would be retracted if they were not duly due (even though they were attributed to actual mistake) and an “amnesty” period for those who acknowledge and willingly report a mistake in their CJRS statements. If the contractor informs HMRC of a mistake in its CJRS statements by 20 October 2020 at the latest, the contractor will be entitled to refund the financial assistance earned without liability or penalty. Analytically, if the mistake were eventually found, a punishment of up to 100 percent of the amount in question can be levied on those who realized that they were not eligible to reward because their misconduct was “deliberated and withheld.” It has been estimated that, as of 15 September, 80,433 UK companies willingly repaid more than £215m to the treasury in the furlough scheme compensation they did not require or made in mistake. That being said, this falls well short of the sum that HMRC assumes has been taken in negligence or as a consequence of false statements.


The mixture of the latest policy decisions and the “amnesty” window present a brief space of possibility for companies who have made mistakes with their CJRS statements.

Those that have obtained compensation under the CJRS should use this occasion to pre-empt any HMRC inquiry and examine their status as far as feasible. This extends to all companies, including those who feel they have behaved in good conscience. We claim this because the initial presumption of HMRC is expected to be that all mistakes have been made intentionally, and so the information collected in the internal inquiry will constitute a “defense kit” against that impression if HMRC wishes to conduct its investigations. You should also verify how much your employees can demand for under the scheme.

The internal analysis would require the evaluation of all applicable documents and transactions, as well as the evaluation of workers where documentation is obtained from executives to demonstrate that they have not been asked or demanded to operate whilst on furlough. If abnormalities are identified, a more forensic examination (such as a study of internal correspondence) may be needed to better identify the actions associated and to make HMRC known.

In situations where the HMRC believes that the law has been broken, it is doubtful that an alert will be issued. As a result of their corruption proceedings, the HMRC may perform searches of household and industrial properties under a permit, which are sometimes referred to as “dawn raids” since they usually take place early morning. As well as being disturbing and threatening to any workers or relatives and friends present, the hunt for HMRC can be time-consuming and difficult. In the case of an investigation, it is important to check the warrant issued and obtain suitable legal counsel as quickly and efficiently as possible.

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